Women in Brazil
Gender Gap. A survey by the World Economic Forum shows that Brazil ranks 51st. among 58 countries.
Brazilian Constitution, article 5, reads: "men and women have equal rights and duties under the terms of this Constitution"; also, the recently approved Civil Code extinguished differences between men and women which had been juridically established almost one century ago.
Brazilian women have been gained space in Brazilian politics space.
One of the eleven Justices of Supreme Court is a woman:
About nine (out of a total 81) Senators are women; numbers may change, because Senators are often called to take offices in the Secretaries of State; click to read the list of
all Brazilian Senators
About 43 (out of 513) Federal Deputies are women; click to access a list of
all Brazilian Deputies
Two States are governed by women:
Rio de Janeiro
Rio Grande do Norte. Also, women are mayor in several cities, including the richest Brazilian city,
São Paulo (UPDATE: Marta Suplicy, ex-mayor of São Paulo, was not re-elected).
Recent Laws granting rights to Women
Law nr. 9278/96 A "stable union" is recognized as a familiar entity. If a man and a woman keep a continuous, lasting, public relationship with the objective of constituting a family, such relationship is recognized as a familiar entity, with all inherent rights and obligations.
Law nr 9263/96 Regulates the familiar planning. The Government must inform about and make available all the existing healthy options of conception or contra-conception. Obliging or inducing someone to esterilization is crime.
Law nr 9.504/97 Regulates elections. The art.10 establishes that candidates of any party must have a proportion of at least 30% and at most 70% for each gender.
More recently, by initiative of the President Lula, the
Law nr. 10,683, 28th May 2003, determined the creation of an specific agency to formulate politics towards Women. The article 22 of said law reads:
Art.22 The Especial Secretary of Politics for Women is competent to assist direct and immediately the President of Republic in the formulation, coordination and articulation of politics toward women, as well as elaborate and implement educational and antidiscriminatory campaigns nationwide, elaborate the planification to contribute with the federal and other levels of government, aiming to promote equalty, articulate, promote and execute programs of cooperation with national and international organisms, promote the implementation of legislation of affirmative action and definition of public actions towards the fullfilment of agreements and treaties signed by Brazil, in all the aspects related to equalty among men and women and to combat to discrimination, having as basic structure the National Council of Rights of Women, the respective cabinet and up to the secretaries.
Brazilian Women Writers' Net
A non governmental, non profitable association (NGO), which renders services and assembles women writers in Brazil.
Network of Women for Education
"Twenty years of feminist popular education, with the mission to empower women considering to conquer a society based on equity, justice and sustentability."
Feminine Center for Learning
(in Portuguese only). Excellent site, focused on citizenship
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